Beast That Gives Its Power to Rome
is a short quip by a man named Villis on an SDA
Internet chat group. This is typical of most SDA thinking in that they deal
with only one of the beasts of Revelation 17, the Roman whore. But she sits
upon a beast with 7 heads and 10 horns. And the beast she sits upon gives
power unto her. Very cleverly, the beast the Mother of harlot churches sits
upon has kept its identity well hidden from the masses and especially
professing Seventh-day Adventists who purport to understand Daniel and
Revelation better than most. This banality is most evident in the following
a cult works - modus operandi of prince of this world
The Jesuit General once boasted that he controls the whole
world from his office
in the Vatican, but the world has no idea how he does it.
Here is his secret - how the black pope rules the world.
It is an ecclesiastical method, as old as Babylon itself. You do it by
massaging public opinion - by making people believe, even fanatically believe
what you want them to do. It is based on the method that Lucifer used to
ensnare fully one half of the angels in heaven, of whom one sixth returned to
the fold of God before it was too late, leaving two sixths, or one third, to
their fate in the lake of fire with Lucifer.
This is precisely the method used by the black pope in his office in the
Vatican. His job is like that of an inventor. An inventor sits in his ivory
tower, dreaming up new gadgets. In the case of the black pope, he sits in his
Vatican office dreaming up SOCIAL ISSUES, AND SOCIAL CAUSES, AND SOCIAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN CLASSES OF PEOPLE. In fact,
the pope first of all sets up classes of people to divide people from people.
That activity is clearly described in Daniel 11. In fact, the whole saga of
his activity is spelled out there in detail, in broader terms than that of
the Jesuit order, which inherited its commission from its predecessor, the
papacy in general:
21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not
the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the
kingdom by flatteries.
22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown
from before him, and
shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall
come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and
shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he
shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea
, and he shall
forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the
with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle
a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast
devices against him.
26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his
army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak
lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the
28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall
against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits ,
and return to his own
29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it
shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him:
therefore he shall be
grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall
do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the
31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of
strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice ,
and they shall place the
abomination that maketh desolate.
32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by
but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits .
33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they
fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen
with a little help: but many
shall cleave to them with flatteries.
35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge,
to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time
36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and
magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against
God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that
that is determined shall be done.
37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women,
regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his
fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and
silver, and with precious
stones, and pleasant things.
39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he
acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over
and shall divide the land for gain.
40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and
king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and
with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries,
shall overflow and pass over.
41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be
overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and
chief of the children of Ammon.
42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of
Egypt shall not escape.
43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over
all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be
44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him:
he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and
utterly to make away many.
45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the
glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help
Notice that first of all, the papacy used FLATTERIES to elevate one class of
people over all the rest. FLATTERIES means the Papal
PATENTS OF NOBILITY, and like authority to give titles of nobility to
scoundrels for their service to the pope.
Thus, knights, dukes, barons, and royals were set up by the Pope over all of
Europe by virtue of the Papal inheritance of the Roman Empire, now sprinkled with
papal holy water, christened "The Holy Roman Empire". This was a
papal invention, the first in a long line of the pope's inventions. Side by
side with these inventions the pope discovered the profitability of war, by
the Crusades of the Middle Ages, of the 12th century, wherein the Knights Templars invented the modern banking system, and retired
from their military duties to become wealthy bankers. The wealth of precisely
this banking system established the papal New World Order already in the
When the Knights Templars fell into disgrace in France, they sought refuge
in Scotland and England and became rooted there, transforming largely into
Freemasons. The money to build these cathedrals by the masons was Papal money
from the papal banking system.
Thus the papal order of knights transformed into the covertly papal order of
the Freemasons, still under papal control, but covertly, SUSTAINED BY THE
WEALTH OF THE BANKING SYSTEM, AND THE POLITIAL POWER OF THE PAPAL ORDAINED
So now the papal system gained both political authority and absolute control
over everybody's money. Like Jesus said when challenged by the Roman Tax
issue, he held up a Roman Drachma, and asked, whose likeness is on the coin -
Now it is the Pope's likeness - the Freemason Pyramid on the Dollar Bill, et
cetera - symbolizing the power of the pope.
I could go through the cited papal passage in Daniel 11 in detail, but leave
to you as a homework exercise. DANIEL 11 IS A BLUEPRINT FOR THE MODUS
OPERANDI OF THE NEW WORLD ORDER, WHICH BEGAN IN THE 12TH CENTURY!
truth of the matter as to whom wags the tail, Rome or the 7 headed, ten
horned beast she sets upon, is that it is the Beast she sits upon. How can we
know that for sure? Because the beast she sits upon finally burns her in one
morning, Rev. 17:16.
That beast gives its power to the whore and
that beast derives from Jewish conversos under the
Spanish Inquisition. Ignatius Loyola was a Jewish “convert” to Catholicism.
But those Jews hated Catholicism like Revelation 17:15 says. You don’t just
convert a Jew by force! And you can read below how their wealth was
confiscated and many of the most wealthy were burned
so their property could be appropriated by the church.
Ignatius Loyola initiated the Society of
Jesuits consisting of Jewish “converts.” These Jesuits hated the Catholics
and worked against the popes. They finally succeeded in taking over the
Catholic church and they “use” it for their purposes. They give it their
power for their own purposes—their own endgame.
Free Masonry existed long before the Spanish
Inquisition, and during that inquisition, Free Masonry was suppressed, but it
later resurged. This suppression and resurgence of Free Masonry was similar
to Revelation 17:8, but in addition to the suppression of Rome in 1798 when
the Pope was taken captive. The Jesuits and Free Masonry merged and Free
Masonry is controlled at the highest echelons by Jews only. They worship
Lucifer. They hate Christians in any form and especially the Catholics who
treated their ancestors so ruthlessly in the Inquisition. And they will one
day burn the whore, Rev. 17:16.
there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with
me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great
whore [Rome] that sitteth upon many waters:
whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her
he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit
upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having
seven heads and ten horns.
4And the woman was arrayed
in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and
pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness
of her fornication:
5And upon her
forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of
the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the
mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her,
which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the
bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall
wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation
of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on
which the woman sitteth.
there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come;
and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of
the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12And the ten
horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom
as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
13These have one mind, and shall
give their power and strength unto the beast.
14These shall make war with the Lamb, and
the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and
they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.
he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and
16 And the
ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore,
and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her
17 For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree,
and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.
woman which thou sawest is that great city, which
reigneth over the kings of the earth.
Ron’s Commentary: The players in this
mystery of Beasts are the same two player that were extant in the days of
Christ—the Jews and the Romans.
During the Spanish Inquisition under
Torquemada, many Jews “converted” to Catholicism to save their necks. These
Jews were called moranos.
“Alonso de Hojeda,
a Dominican friar from Seville,
convinced Queen Isabel of the existence of Crypto-Judaism among Andalusian conversos during her stay in Seville between 1477
and 1478. A report, produced by Pedro González de Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville, and by the Segovian Dominican Tomás de Torquemada, corroborated this assertion.
The monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile to discover
and punish crypto-Jews, and requested the Pope's assent. Ferdinand II of
Aragon pressured Pope Sixtus IV to agree to an
Inquisition controlled by the monarchy by threatening to withdraw military
support at a time when the Turks were a threat to Rome. The Pope issued a
bull to stop the Inquisition but was pressured into withdrawing it. On
November 1, 1478, Pope Sixtus IV published the Papal
bull, Exigit Sinceras
through which he gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the
inquisitors in their kingdoms. The first two inquisitors, Miguel
de Morillo and Juan
de San Martín were not named, however, until two years later, on September 27, 1480 in Medina del Campo.
In 1483, Jews
were expelled from all of Andalusia. Ferdinand pressured the Pope
to promulgate a new bull. He did so on October 17, 1483, naming Tomás de Torquemada Inquisidor
General of Aragón, Valencia and Catalonia. Torquemada quickly established
procedures for the Inquisition. A new court would be announced with a thirty
day grace period for confessions and the gathering of accusations by
neighbors. Evidence that was used to identify a crypto-Jew included the
absence of chimney smoke on Saturdays (a sign the family might secretly be
honoring the Sabbath) or the buying of many vegetables before Passover or the
purchase of meat from a converted butcher. The court employed physical
torture to extract confessions. Crypto-Jews were allowed to confess and do
penance, although those who relapsed were burned at the stake.
In 1484 Pope Innocent
VIII attempted to allow appeals to Rome against the Inquisition, but
Ferdinand in December 1484 and again in 1509 decreed death and confiscation
for anyone trying to make use of such procedures without royal permission.
With this, the Inquisition became the only institution that held authority
across all the realms of the Spanish monarchy, and, in all of them, a useful
mechanism at the service of the crown. However, the cities of Aragón
continued resisting, and even saw revolt, as in Teruel
from 1484 to 1485. However, the murder of Inquisidor
Arbués in Zaragoza on
September 15, 1485, caused public opinion to turn against the conversos and in favour
of the Inquisition. In Aragón, the Inquisitorial courts were focused
specifically on members of the powerful converso
minority, ending their influence in the Aragonese
Inquisition was extremely active between 1480 and 1530. Different sources
give different estimates of the number of trials and executions in this
period; Henry Kamen estimates about 2,000 executed,
based on the documentation of the autos-da-fé, the great
majority being conversos of Jewish origin.
He offers striking statistics: 91.6% of those judged in Valencia between 1484
and 1530 and 99.3% of those judged in Barcelona between 1484 and 1505 were of
"In 1498 the pope was still trying to...gain acceptance for his own
attitude towards the New Christians, which was generally more moderate than
that of the Inquisition and the local rulers."
Expulsion of Jews and repression of conversos
Inquisition had been set up in part to prevent conversos
from engaging in Jewish practices, which, as Christians, they were supposed
to have given up. However this remedy for securing the orthodoxy of conversos' religion was eventually deemed
inadequate, since the main justification the monarchy gave for formally
expelling all Jews from Spain was the "great harm suffered by Christians
(i.e. conversos) from the contact, intercourse and
communication which they have with the Jews, who always attempt in various
ways to seduce faithful Christians from our Holy Catholic Faith".
The Alhambra Decree, which ordered the expulsion, was
issued in January 1492. The number of Jews who left Spain is not even
approximately known. Historians of the period give extremely high figures: Juan
de Mariana speaks of 800,000 people, and Don Isaac Abravanel
of 300,000. Modern estimates are much lower: Henry Kamen
estimates that, of a population of approximately 80,000 Jews, about one half
or 40,000 chose emigration.
The Jews of the kingdom of Castile emigrated mainly
to Portugal (from where they were expelled in 1497) and to North Africa.
However, according to Henry Kamen, the Jews of the
kingdom of Aragon, went "to adjacent Christian lands, mainly to
Italy", rather than to Muslim lands as is often assumed.
The Sefardim or Anusim
descendants of Spanish Jews gradually migrated throughout Europe and North
Africa, where they established communities in many cities. They also went to New Spain,
the Ottoman Empire and North America (the American
Southwest), Central and South America.
thousands of Jews were baptised in the three months
before the deadline for expulsion, some 40,000 if one accepts the totals
given by Kamen: most of these undoubtedly to avoid
expulsion, rather than as a sincere change of faith. These conversos were the principal concern of the
Inquisition; being suspected of continuing to practice Judaism put them at
risk of denunciation and trial.
intense period of persecution of conversos
lasted until 1530. From 1531 to 1560, however, the percentage of conversos among the Inquisition trials dropped to
3% of the total. There was a rebound of persecutions when a group of
crypto-Jews was discovered in Quintanar de la Orden in 1588; and there was a rise in denunciations
of conversos in the last decade of the 16th
century. At the beginning of the 17th century, some conversos
who had fled to Portugal began to return to Spain, fleeing the persecution of
the Portuguese Inquisition, founded in 1532.
This led to a rapid increase in the trials of crypto-Jews, among them a
number of important financiers. In 1691, during a number of autos-da-fé in Majorca, 36 chuetas, or conversos
of Majorca, were burned.
18th century the number of conversos accused
by the Inquisition decreased significantly. Manuel
Santiago Vivar, tried in Córdoba in 1818,
was the last person tried for being a crypto-Jew.
accepted number burnt at the stake by the Inquisition (including
all categories such as Protestants, blasphemers, bigamists and crypto-Jews)
is below 5,000 (see
Repression of Moriscos
Inquisition not only hunted for Protestants and false converts from Judaism,
the conversos but also searched for false or relapsed
converts among the Moriscos, forced converts from Islam. The Moriscos were mostly concentrated in the recently
conquered kingdom of Granada, in Aragon,
and in Valencia. Officially, all Muslims in the
Crown of Castile had been forcibly converted to Christianity in 1502. Muslims
in the Crown of Aragon were obliged to convert by Charles I's decree of 1526, as most
had been forcibly baptized during the Revolt of the Brotherhoods (1519–1523)
and these baptisms were declared to be valid.
Many Moriscos were suspected of practising
Islam in secret, and the jealousy with which they guarded the privacy of
their domestic life prevented the verification of this suspicion.
Initially they were not severely persecuted by the Inquisition, but
experienced a policy of evangelization without torture,[clarification
needed] a policy not followed with those conversos who were suspected of being crypto-Jews.
There were various reasons for this. Most importantly, in the kingdoms of
Valencia and Aragon a large number of the Moriscos
were under the jurisdiction of the nobility, and persecution would have been
viewed as a frontal assault on the economic interests of this powerful social
Still, fears ran high among the population that the Moriscos
were traitorous, especially in Granada. The coast was regularly raided by Barbary
pirates backed by Spain's enemy the Ottoman
Empire, and the Moriscos were suspected of
In the second
half of the century, late in the reign of Philip II, conditions worsened
between Old Christians and Moriscos.
The 1568–1570 Morisco Revolt in Granada was harshly
suppressed, and the Inquisition intensified its attention to the Moriscos. From 1570 Morisco
cases became predominant in the tribunals of Zaragoza,
Valencia and Granada; in the tribunal of Granada, between 1560 and 1571, 82%
of those accused were Moriscos.
Still, according to Kamen, the Moriscos
did not experience the same harshness as judaizing conversos and Protestants, and the number of
capital punishments was proportionally less.
In 1609 King Philip III, upon the advice of his
financial adviser the Duke of Lerma and
Archbishop of Valencia Juan de Ribera, decreed the Expulsion of the Moriscos.
Hundreds of thousands of Moriscos were expelled,
some of them probably sincere Christians. This was further fueled by the
religious intolerance of Archbishop Ribera who quoted the Old Testament texts
ordering the enemies of God to be slain without mercy and setting forth the
duties of kings to extirpate them.
The edict required: 'The Moriscos to depart, under the
pain of death and confiscation, without trial or sentence... to take with
them no money, bullion, jewels or bills of exchange.... just what they could
So successful was the enterprise, in the space of months, Spain was emptied
of its Moriscos. Expelled were the Moriscos of Aragon, Murcia, Catalonia, Castile, Mancha and Extremadura.
As for the Moriscos of Granada, such
as the Herrador family who held positions in the
Church and magistracy, they still had to struggle against exile and
indeterminate number of Moriscos remained in Spain
and, during the 17th century, the Inquisition pursued some trials against
them of minor importance: according to Kamen,
between 1615 and 1700, cases against Moriscos
constituted only 9 percent of those judged by the Inquisition.
2008, a genetic study of the current population of the Iberian Peninsula,
published in the American Journal of Human Genetics,
estimated that about 10% have North African ancestors and 20% have Sephardi Jews as ancestors. Since there is no direct
link between genetic makeup and religious affiliation, however, it is
difficult to draw direct conclusions between their findings and forced or
Nevertheless, the Sephardic result is in contradiction
or not replicated in all the body of genetic studies done in Iberia and has
been later questioned by the authors themselves
and by Stephen Oppenheimer who estimates that much
earlier migrations, 5000 to 10,000 years ago from the Eastern Mediterranean
might also have accounted for the Sephardic estimates: "They are really
assuming that they are looking at his migration of Jewish immigrants, but the
same lineages could have been introduced in the Neolithic".
The rest of genetic studies done in Spain estimate the Moorish contribution
ranging from 2.5/3.4%
Control of Protestants
popular myth about the Inquisition relating to Protestants, it dealt with
very few cases involving actual Protestants, as there were so few in Spain.
The first of the trials against those labeled by the Inquisition as
"Lutheran" were those against the sect of mystics
known as the "Alumbrados
" of Guadalajara and Valladolid.
The trials were long, and ended with prison sentences of differing lengths,
though none of the sect were executed. Nevertheless,
the subject of the "Alumbrados" put the
Inquisition on the trail of many intellectuals and clerics who, interested in
Erasmian ideas, had strayed from orthodoxy (which is
striking because both Charles I and Philip II of Spain were confessed admirers of Erasmus). Such
was the case with the humanist Juan
de Valdés, who was forced to flee to Italy to
escape the process that had been begun against him, and the preacher, Juan
de Ávila, who spent close to a year in prison.
trials against Lutheran groups, as such, took place between 1558 and
1562, at the beginning of the reign of Philip II, against two communities of
Protestants from the cities of Valladolid and Seville numbering about 120.
The trials signaled a notable intensification of the Inquisition's
activities. A number of autos-da-fé were held, some
of them presided over by members of the royal family and around 100
executions took place.
of the mid-century virtually put an end to Spanish Protestantism which was,
throughout, a small phenomenon to begin with.
though the trials continued, the repression was much reduced, According to Kamen, only about 200 Spaniards were accused of being
Protestants in the last decades of the 16th century. "Most of them were
in no sense Protestants...Irreligious sentiments, drunken mockery,
anticlerical expressions, were all captiously classified by the inquisitors
(or by those who denounced the cases) as ‘Lutheran.’ Disrespect to church
images, and eating meat on forbidden days, were taken as signs of heresy"
and it is estimated that a dozen Spaniards were burned alive.
Spain, but in Spanish territories however, especially in the Spanish Netherlands, a large number (some suggest
6,000) of (alleged) Protestants were executed by the inquisition's
council of troubles
manifestation of the Counter-Reformation, the Spanish Inquisition
worked actively to impede the diffusion of heretical ideas in Spain by
producing "Indexes" of prohibited books. Such lists of prohibited
books were common in Europe a decade before the Inquisition published its
first. The first Index published in Spain in 1551 was, in reality, a
reprinting of the Index published by the University of Louvain in 1550, with
an appendix dedicated to Spanish texts. Subsequent Indexes were published in
1559, 1583, 1612, 1632, and 1640. The Indexes included an enormous number of
books of all types, though special attention was dedicated to religious
works, and, particularly, vernacular translations of the Bible.
the Indexes, at one point, were many of the great works of Spanish
literature. Also, a number of religious writers who are today considered
saints by the Catholic Church saw their works appear in the Indexes. At
first, this might seem counter-intuitive or even nonsensical—how were these
Spanish authors published in the first place if their texts were then
prohibited by the Inquisition and placed in the Index? The answer lies in the
process of publication and censorship in Early Modern Spain. Books in Early
Modern Spain faced prepublication licensing and approval (which could include
modification) by both secular and religious authorities. However, once
approved and published, the circulating text also faced the possibility of
post-hoc censorship by being denounced to the Inquisition—sometimes decades
later. Likewise, as Catholic theology evolved, once-prohibited texts might be
removed from the Index.
inclusion in the Index meant total prohibition of a text; however, this
proved not only impractical and unworkable, but also contrary to the goals of
having a literate and well-educated clergy. Works with one line of suspect
dogma would be prohibited in their entirety, despite the remainder of the
text's sound dogma. In time, a compromise solution was adopted in which
trusted Inquisition officials blotted out words, lines or whole passages of
otherwise acceptable texts, thus allowing these expurgated editions to
circulate. Although in theory the Indexes imposed enormous restrictions on
the diffusion of culture in Spain, some historians, such as Henry Kamen, argue that such strict control was impossible in
practice and that there was much more liberty in this respect than is often
believed. And Irving Leonard has conclusively demonstrated that, despite
repeated royal prohibitions, romances of chivalry, such as Amadis of Gaul, found their way to the New World with
the blessing of the Inquisition. Moreover, with the coming of the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century,
increasing numbers of licenses to possess and read prohibited texts were
repeated publication of the Indexes and a large bureaucracy of censors, the
activities of the Inquisition did not impede the flowering of Spanish
literature's "Siglo de Oro", although
almost all of its major authors crossed paths with the Holy Office at one
point or another. Among the Spanish authors included in the Index are: Bartolomé
Torres Naharro, Juan
del Enzina, Jorge de Montemayor,
Juan de Valdés and Lope de
Vega, as well as the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes and the Cancionero
General by Hernando
del Castillo. La Celestina, which was
not included in the Indexes of the 16th century, was expurgated in 1632 and
prohibited in its entirety in 1790. Among the non-Spanish authors prohibited
were Ovid, Dante, Rabelais, Ariosto, Machiavelli,
Erasmus, Jean Bodin, Valentine Naibod and Thomas
More (known in Spain as Tomás Moro). One of the
most outstanding and best-known cases in which the Inquisition directly
confronted literary activity is that of Fray Luis de León, noted humanist and religious
writer of converso origin, who was imprisoned for
four years (from 1572 to 1576) for having translated the Song
of Songs directly from Hebrew.
indicate that one of the main effects of the inquisition was to end free
thought and scientific thought in Spain. As one
contemporary Spanish in exile put it: "Our country is a land of
... barbarism; down there one cannot produce any culture without being
suspected of heresy, error and Judaism. Thus silence was imposed on the
learned." For the next few centuries, while the rest of Europe was
slowly awakened by the influence of the Enlightenment, Spain stagnated.
However, this conclusion is contested. The censorship of books was actually
very ineffective, and prohibited books circulated in Spain without
significant problems. The Spanish Inquisition never persecuted scientists,
and relatively few scientific books were placed on the Index. On the other
hand, Spain was a state with more political freedom than in other absolute
monarchies in the 16th to 18th centuries. The backwardness of Spain in
economy and science can hardly be attributed to the Inquisition.
Inquisition was created to suppress heresy, it also occupied itself with a
wide variety of offences that only indirectly could be related to religious
heterodoxy. Of a total of 49,092 trials from the period 1560–1700 registered
in the archive of the Suprema, appear the
following: judaizantes (5,007); moriscos (11,311); Lutherans
(3,499); alumbrados (149);
superstitions (3,750); heretical propositions (14,319); bigamy (2,790);
solicitation (1,241); offences against the Holy Office of the Inquisition
(3,954); miscellaneous (2,575).[citation
demonstrate that not only New Christians (conversos
of Jewish or Islamic
descent) and Protestants faced investigation, but also Old
Christians could be targeted for various reasons as well.
"superstitions" includes trials related to witchcraft.
in Spain had much less intensity than in other European countries
(particularly France, Scotland, and Germany). One remarkable case was that of Logroño, in which
the witches of Zugarramurdi in Navarre were
persecuted. During the auto-da-fé that took place
in Logroño on November 7 and November 8, 1610, 6 people
were burned and another 5 burned in effigy.
In general, nevertheless, the Inquisition maintained a sceptical
attitude towards cases of witchcraft, considering it as a mere superstition
without any basis. Alonso de Salazar Frías,
who, after the trials of Logroño took the Edict of Faith
to various parts of Navarre, noted in his report to the Suprema
that, "There were neither witches nor bewitched in a village until they were talked and written
under the rubric of heretical propositions were verbal offences, from
to questionable statements regarding religious beliefs, from issues of sexual
morality, to misbehaviour of the clergy. Many were
brought to trial for affirming that simple fornication (sex between unmarried
persons) was not a sin or for putting in doubt different aspects of Christian
faith such as Transubstantiation or the virginity of Mary. Also, members of the clergy itself were
occasionally accused of heretical propositions. These offences rarely lead to
Inquisition also pursued offences against morals, at times in open conflict
with the jurisdictions of civil tribunals. In particular, there were numerous
trials for bigamy,
a relatively frequent offence in a society that only permitted divorce under
the most extreme circumstances. In the case of men, the penalty was five
years in the galley
(tantamount to a death sentence). Women too were accused of bigamy. Also,
many cases of solicitation during confession were adjudicated, indicating a
strict vigilance over the clergy.
repression of the sexual offence of sodomy,
considered, according to Canon Law, as a crime against nature, merits separate
attention. This included cases of incidences of heterosexual and homosexual anal sex, rape, and separately bestiality.
Civil authorities at times executed those convicted.
In 1506 at Seville the
Inquisition made a special investigation into sodomy, causing many arrests
and many fugitives and burning 12 persons, but in 1509 the Suprema in Castile
declared that crime not within the jurisdiction of the Inquisition deciding
that cases of sodomy could not be adjudicated, unless related to heresy.
Alleging that sodomy had been introduced to Spain by the Moors, in 1524 the
Spanish Ambassador to Rome obtained a special commission from Clement
VII for the Holy Office to curb its spread by investigating laymen and
clergy in the territories of Aragon, whether or not it
was related to heresy; and proceeding according to local, municipal law in
spite of the resistance by local bishops to this usurpation of their
distinguished itself for its severity in judging these offences: between
1571—1579, 101 men accused of sodomy were processed and at least 35 were executed. In
total, between 1570 and 1630 there were 534 trials (incl. 187 for
homosexuality, 245 for bestiality, and 111 with unknown specification of the
charges) with 102 executions (incl. 27 for homosexuality, 64 for bestiality
and 11 uncertain cases).
sodomite was burned by the Inquisition in Valencia in 1572, and those accused
included 19% clergy, 6% nobles, 37% workers, 19% servants, and 18% soldiers
A growing reluctance to convict those who, unlike heretics, could not escape
by confession and penance led after 1630 to greater leniency. Torture
decreased: in Valencia 21% of sodomites were tortured prior to 1630, but only
4% afterwards. The last execution in persona for sodomy by the
Inquisition took place in Zaragoza in April 1633. In total, out of about
1,000 convicted of sodomy - 170 were actually burnt at the stake, including
84 condemned for bestiality and 75 for homosexuality, with 11 cases where the
exact character of the charges is not known.
Nearly all of
almost 500 cases of sodomy between persons concerned the relationship between
an older man and an adolescent, often by coercion; with only a few cases
where the couple were consenting homosexual
adults. About 100 of the total involved allegations of child abuse.
Adolescents were generally punished more leniently than adults, but only when
they were very young (under ca. 12 years) or when the case clearly concerned
rape, did they have a chance to avoid punishment altogether. As a rule, the
Inquisition condemned to death only those "sodomites" over the age
of 25 years. As about half of those tried were under this age, it explains
the relatively small percent of death sentences.
In 1815, Francisco Xavier de Mier y Campillo, the Inquisitor General of the Spanish Inquisition
and the Bishop of Almería,
suppressed Freemasonry and denounced the lodges as "societies
which lead to atheism, to sedition and to all errors and crimes."
He then instituted a purge during which Spaniards
could be arrested on the charge of being "suspected of Freemasonry".
role in religious affairs, the Inquisition was also an institution at the
service of the monarchy. The Inquisitor General, in charge of the Holy
Office, was designated by the crown. The Inquisitor General was the only
public office whose authority stretched to all the kingdoms of Spain
(including the American viceroyalties), except for a brief period (1507–1518)
during which there were two Inquisitors General, one in the kingdom of
Castile, and the other in Aragon.
Inquisitor General presided over the Council of the Supreme and General
Inquisition (generally abbreviated as "Council of the Suprema"), created in 1483, which was made up of six
members named directly by the crown (the number of members of the Suprema varied over the course of the Inquisition's
history, but it was never more than 10). Over time, the authority of the Suprema grew at the expense of the power of the
The Suprema met every morning, save for holidays, and for two
hours in the afternoon on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The morning
sessions were devoted to questions of faith, while the afternoons were
reserved for "minor heresies"
cases of perceived unacceptable sexual behavior, bigamy, witchcraft,
Below the Suprema were the different tribunals of the Inquisition,
which were, in their origins, itinerant, installing themselves where they
were necessary to combat heresy, but later being established in fixed
locations. In the first phase, numerous tribunals were established, but the
period after 1495 saw a marked tendency towards centralization.
Auto-da-fé, Plaza Mayor in Lima, Viceroyalty of
Peru, 17th century
kingdom of Castile, the following permanent tribunals of the Inquisition were
and in Córdoba.
and in Llerena.
and in Murcia.
Palmas (Canary Islands).
In Santiago de Compostela.
only four tribunals in the kingdom of Aragon: Zaragoza and Valencia (1482), Barcelona
(1484), and Majorca
Ferdinand the Catholic also established
the Spanish Inquisition in Sicily (1513), housed in Palermo and Sardinia, in
the town of Sassari.
In the Americas, tribunals were established in Lima and in Mexico
City (1569) and, in 1610, in Cartagena de Indias
(present day Colombia).
Composition of the tribunals
each of the tribunals included two inquisitors, a calificador,
an alguacil (bailiff) and a fiscal
(prosecutor); new positions were added as the institution matured.
inquisitors were preferably jurists more than theologians, and, in 1608, Philip III even stipulated that all the
inquisitors must have a background in law. The inquisitors did not typically
remain in the position for a long time: for the Court of Valencia, for example, the
average tenure in the position was about two years.
Most of the inquisitors belonged to the secular clergy (priests who were not
members of religious orders), and had a university
was in charge of presenting the accusation, investigating the denunciations
and interrogating the witnesses by the use of physical and mental torture.
The calificadores were generally
theologians; it fell to them to determine if the defendant's conduct added up
to a crime against the faith. Consultants were expert jurists who advised the
court in questions of procedure. The court had, in addition, three
secretaries: the notario de secuestros (Notary of Property), who registered the
goods of the accused at the moment of his detention; the notario
del secreto (Notary of the Secret), who
recorded the testimony of the defendant and the witnesses; and the escribano general (General Notary),
secretary of the court.
The alguacil was the executive arm of the court: he
was responsible for detaining, jailing, and physically torturing the
defendant. Other civil employees were the nuncio, ordered to spread
official notices of the court, and the alcaide,
jailer in charge of feeding the prisoners.
to the members of the court, two auxiliary figures existed that collaborated
with the Holy Office: the familiares and the
comissarios (commissioners). Familiares were lay collaborators of the
Inquisition, who had to be permanently at the service of the Holy Office. To
become a familiar was considered an honour, since
it was a public recognition of limpieza
de sangre — Old Christian status — and brought
with it certain additional privileges. Although many nobles held the
position, most of the familiares many came
from the ranks of commoners. The commissioners, on the other hand, were
members of the religious orders who collaborated occasionally with the Holy
One of the
most striking aspects of the organization of the Inquisition was its form of
financing: devoid of its own budget, the Inquisition depended exclusively on
the confiscation of the goods of the denounced. It is not surprising,
therefore, that many of those prosecuted were rich men. That the situation
was open to abuse is evident, as stands out in the memorial that a converso from Toledo
directed to Charles I:
must provide, before all else, that the expenses of the Holy Office do not
come from the properties of the condemned, because if that is the case, if
they do not burn they do not eat."
Functioning of the inquisition
outset of the Inquisition, in a letter of April 14, 1482, Pope
Sixtus IV instructed the Spanish to ensure due
process, allow legal counsel and appeal to Rome.
King Ferdinand defiantly rejected Papal control, the Inquisition becoming
thereafter a tool of the monarchy, rather than the church.
In 1483, Ferdinand made Torquemada the Inquisitor General of most areas of
Its procedures were set out in various Instrucciones
issued by the successive Inquisitors General, Torquemada, Deza,
Inquisition arrived in a city, the first step was the Edict of Grace.
Following the Sunday mass, the Inquisitor would proceed to read the edict; it
explained possible heresies and encouraged all the
congregation to come to the tribunals of the Inquisition to "relieve
their consciences". They were called Edicts of Grace because all
of the self-incriminated who presented themselves within a period of grace
(usually ranging from thirty to forty days) were offered the possibility of
reconciliation with the Church without severe punishment.
The promise of benevolence was effective, and many voluntarily presented
themselves to the Inquisition and were often encouraged to denounce others
who had also committed offenses, informants being the Inquisition's primary
source of information. After about 1500, the Edicts of Grace were replaced by
the Edicts of Faith, which left out the grace period and instead
encouraged the denunciation of those guilty.
Diego Mateo López
Zapata in his cell before his trial by the Inquisition Court of Cuenca
denunciations were anonymous, and the defendants had no way of knowing the
identities of their accusers.
This was one of the points most criticized by those who opposed the
Inquisition (for example, the Cortes
of Castile, in 1518). In practice, false denunciations were
frequent. Denunciations were made for a variety of reasons, from genuine
concern, to rivalries and personal jealousies.
denunciation, the case was examined by the calificadores
(qualifiers), who had to determine if there was heresy involved, followed by
detention of the accused. In practice, however, many were detained in
preventive custody, and many cases of lengthy incarcerations occurred,
lasting up to two years, before the calificadores
examined the case.
the accused entailed the preventive sequestration of their property by the
Inquisition. The property of the prisoner was used to pay for procedural
expenses and the accused's own maintenance and
costs. Often the relatives of the defendant found themselves in outright
misery. This situation was only remedied following instructions written in
process was undertaken with the utmost secrecy, as much for the public as for
the accused, who were not informed about the accusations that were levied
against them. Months, or even years could pass without the accused being
informed about why they were imprisoned. The prisoners remained isolated,
and, during this time, the prisoners were not allowed to attend Mass
nor receive the sacraments. The jails of the Inquisition were no worse
than those of secular authorities, and there are even certain testimonies
that occasionally they were much better.
inquisitorial process consisted of a series of hearings, in which both the
denouncers and the defendant gave testimony. A defense counsel was assigned
to the defendant, a member of the tribunal itself, whose role was simply to
advise the defendant and to encourage them to speak the truth. The
prosecution was directed by the fiscal. Interrogation of the defendant
was done in the presence of the Notary of the Secreto,
who meticulously wrote down the words of the accused. The archives of the
Inquisition, in comparison to those of other judicial systems of the era, are
striking in the completeness of their documentation. In order to defend themselves, the accused had two possibilities: abonos (to find favourable
witnesses, akin to "substantive" evidence/testimony in
Anglo-American law) or tachas (to
demonstrate that the witnesses of accusers were not trustworthy, akin to
Anglo-American "impeachment" evidence/testimony).
In order to
interrogate the accused, the Inquisition made use of torture, but
not in a systematic way. It was applied mainly against those suspected of Judaism and Protestantism,
beginning in the 16th century. For example, Lea estimates that between 1575
and 1610 the court of Toledo tortured approximately a third of those
processed for heresy.
In other periods, the proportions varied remarkably. Torture was always a
means to obtain the confession of the accused, not a punishment itself.
Torture was also applied without distinction of sex or age, including
children and the aged.
chamber. Mémoires Historiques
As with all
European tribunals of the time, torture was employed.
The Spanish inquisition, however, engaged in it far less often and with
greater care than other courts.
The scenes of sadism found in popular writers on the inquisition are not
based in truth.
Modern scholars have determined that torture was used in only two percent of
the cases, for no more than 15 minutes, and in only less than one percent of
the cases was it used a second time, never more than that.
Inquisition was technically forbidden from permanently harming or drawing
this still allowed for methods of torture. The
methods most used, and common in other secular and ecclesiastical tribunals,
were garrucha, toca
and the potro.
The application of the garrucha, also known
as the strappado, consisted of suspending the victim from
the ceiling by the wrists, which are tied behind the back. Sometimes weights
were tied to the ankles, with a series of lifts and drops, during which the
arms and legs suffered violent pulls and were sometimes dislocated.
The toca, also called interrogatorio
mejorado del agua,
consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing
them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had the impression of
drowning (see: waterboarding).
The potro, the rack,
was the instrument of torture used most frequently.
that "confessionem esse
veram, non factam vi tormentorum" (literally: ((a person's)) confession
is truth, not made by way of torture.) sometimes follows a description of
how, after torture had ended, the subject freely confessed to the offenses.
Thus, all confession acquired by means of torture were considered completely
valid as they were supposedly made of the confessor's own free will.
process concluded, the inquisidores met with a
representative of the bishop and with the consultores,
experts in theology
Law, which was called the consulta de
fe. The case was voted and sentence pronounced,
which had to be unanimous. In case of discrepancies, the Suprema
had to be informed.
authorities within the Eastern Orthodox Church, there was at
least one casualty tortured by those Jesuits who administered the Spanish
Inquisition in North America: St. Peter
of the trial could be the following:
quite rare in actual practice, the defendant could be acquitted.
trial, itself, could be suspended, in which case the defendant,
although under suspicion, went free (with the threat that the process could
be continued at any time) or was held in long-term imprisonment until a trial
commenced. When set free after a suspended trial it was considered a form of
acquittal without specifying that the accusation had been erroneous.
defendant could be penanced. Since they were
considered guilty, they had to publicly abjure their crimes (de levi if it was a
misdemeanor, and de vehementi if the crime
were serious), and accept a public punishment. Among these were
, exile, fines or even sentencing to the gallows.
defendant could be reconciled. In addition to the public ceremony in
which the condemned was reconciled with the Catholic Church, more severe
punishments were used, among them long sentences to jail or the gallows, plus
the confiscation of all property. Physical punishments, such as whipping,
were also used.
most serious punishment was relaxation to the secular arm for burning at the stake—the Church did not
itself kill. This penalty was frequently applied to impenitent heretics and
those who had relapsed. Execution was public. If the condemned repented, they
were shown mercy by being garroted before burning; if not, they were burned alive.
cases were judged in absentia, and when the accused died before the
trial finished, the condemned were burned in effigy.
distribution of the punishments varied considerably over time. It is believed
that sentences of death were enforced in the first stages within the long
history of the Inquisition. According to García Cárcel, the court of Valencia employed the death
penalty in 40% of the processings before 1530, but
later that percentage dropped to 3%).
Auto-da-fé, Plaza Mayor in Madrid, 1683
 The autos-da-fé
For more details on this topic, see Auto-da-fé.
sentence was condemnatory, this implied that the condemned had to participate
in the ceremony of an auto de fe
(more commonly known in English as an auto-da-fé), that solemnized their return to the Church (in
most cases), or punishment as an impenitent heretic. The autos-da-fé could be private (auto
particular) or public (auto publico or auto
initially the public autos did not have any special solemnity nor
sought a large attendance of spectators, with time they became solemn
ceremonies, celebrated with large public crowds, amidst a festive atmosphere.
eventually became a baroque spectacle, with staging meticulously calculated to
cause the greatest effect among the spectators.
were conducted in a large public space (in the largest plaza of the city,
frequently), generally on holidays. The rituals related to the auto
began the previous night (the "procession of the Green Cross") and
sometimes lasted the whole day. The auto-da-fé frequently was taken to the canvas by painters:
one of the better known examples is the painting by Francesco
Rizzi held by the Prado Museum in Madrid and which
represents the auto celebrated in the Plaza Mayor of Madrid on June
30, 1680. The last public auto-da-fé took place in 1691.
The auto-da-fé involved: a Catholic
Mass; prayer; a public procession of those found guilty; and a reading of
their sentences (Peters 1988: 93-94). They took place in public squares or
esplanades and lasted several hours: ecclesiastical and civil authorities
attended. Artistic representations of the auto-da-fé usually depict torture and the burning at the
stake. However, this type of activity never took place during an auto-da-fé, which was in essence
a religious act. Torture was not administered after a trial concluded, and
executions were always held after and separate from the auto-da-fé (Kamen
1997: 192-213), though in the minds and experiences of observers and those
undergoing the confession and execution, the separation of the two might be
experienced as merely a technicality.
was held in Paris in 1242, during the reign of Louis IX.
However, the first Spanish auto-da-fé did not take place until Seville in 1481; six of
the men and women subjected to this first religious ritual were later
executed. The Inquisition had limited power in Portugal, having been
established in 1536 and officially lasting until 1821, although its influence
was much weakened with the government of the Marquis of Pombal
in the second half of the 18th century. Autos-da-fé also took place in Mexico, Brazil and Peru:
contemporary historians of the Conquistadors such as Bernal Díaz del Castillo record them. They also took place in
the Portuguese colony of Goa, India, following the establishment of
Inquisition there in 1562–1563.
of the Enlightenment in Spain slowed inquisitorial
activity. In the first half of the 18th century, 111 were condemned to be
burned in person, and 117 in effigy, most of them for judaizing. In the reign of Philip V, there were 125 autos-da-fé, while in the reigns
of Charles III and Charles IV only 44.
18th century, the Inquisition changed: Enlightenment ideas were the closest
threat that had to be fought. The main figures of the Spanish Enlightenment
were in favour of the abolition of the Inquisition,
and many were processed by the Holy Office, among them Olavide, in 1776; Iriarte, in
1779; and Jovellanos,
in 1796; Jovellanos sent a report to Charles IV in
which he indicated the inefficiency of the Inquisition's courts and the
ignorance of those who operated them:
take [the position] only to obtain gossip and exemption from choir; who are
ignorant of foreign languages, who only know a little scholastic theology...
In its new
role, the Inquisition tried to accentuate its function of censoring
publications, but found that Charles III had secularized censorship
procedures and, on many occasions, the authorization of the Council of Castile hit the more intransigent
position of the Inquisition. Since the Inquisition itself was an arm of the
state, being within the Council of Castile, civil, rather than
ecclesiastical, censorship usually prevailed. This loss of influence can also
be explained because the foreign Enlightenment texts entered the peninsula
through prominent members of the nobility or government,
influential people with whom it was very difficult to interfere. Thus, for
Encyclopedia entered Spain thanks to special licenses granted by
after the French Revolution the Council of Castile,
fearing that revolutionary ideas would penetrate Spain's borders, decided to
reactivate the Holy Office that was directly charged with the persecution of
French works. An Inquisition edict of December 1789, that received the full
approval of Charles IV and Floridablanca,
that several books have been scattered and promoted in these kingdoms...
that, without being contented with the simple narration events of a seditious
nature... seem to form a theoretical and practical code of independence from
the legitimate powers.... destroying in this way the political and social
order... the reading of thirty and nine French works is prohibited, under
inquisitorial activity was impossible in the face of the information
avalanche that crossed the border; in 1792
the multitude of
seditious papers... does not allow formalizing the files against those who
from within against the Inquisition was almost always clandestine. The first
texts that questioned the Inquisition and praised the ideas of Voltaire or Montesquieu
appeared in 1759. After the suspension of pre-publication censorship on the
part of the Council of Castile in 1785, the newspaper El Censor
began the publication of protests against the activities of the Holy Office
by means of a rationalist critique and, even, Valentin de Foronda published Espíritu de los Mejores Diarios, a plea in favour
of freedom of expression that was avidly read in the salons. Also, Manuel
de Aguirre, in the same vein, wrote, On Toleration in El Censor,
El Correo de los Ciegos
Diario de Madrid.
End of the Inquisition
reign of Charles IV of Spain, in spite of the fears
that the French Revolution provoked, several events took
place that accelerated the decline of the Inquisition. In the first place,
the state stopped being a mere social organizer and began to worry about the
well-being of the public. As a result, they considered the land-holding power
of the Church, in the señoríos and, more generally, in
the accumulated wealth that had prevented social progress.
On the other hand, the perennial struggle between the power of the throne and
the power of the Church, inclined more and more to the former, under which, Enlightenment thinkers found better
protection for their ideas. Manuel
Godoy and Antonio
were openly hostile to an institution whose only role had been reduced to censorship
and was the very embodiment of the Spanish Black
Legend, internationally, and was not suitable to the political interests
of the moment:
Inquisition? Its old power no longer exists: the horrible authority that this
bloodthirsty court had exerted in other times was reduced... the Holy Office
had come to be a species of commission for book censorship, nothing more...
Inquisition was abolished during the domination of Napoleon and
the reign of Joseph Bonaparte (1808–1812). In 1813, the
liberal deputies of the Cortes of Cádiz also
obtained its abolition,
largely as a result of the Holy Office's condemnation of the popular revolt
against French invasion. But the Inquisition was reconstituted when Ferdinand VII recovered the throne on July
1, 1814. It was again abolished during the three year Liberal interlude known
as the Trienio liberal. Later,
during the period known as the Ominous
Decade, the Inquisition was not formally re-established,
although, de facto, it returned under the so-called Meetings of Faith,
tolerated in the dioceses by King Ferdinand. These had the dubious honour of executing the last heretic condemned, the
school teacher Cayetano Ripoll, garroted in Valencia on July 26, 1826
(presumably for having taught deist principles), all amongst a European-wide scandal at the
despotic attitude still prevailing in Spain. Juan Antonio Llorente,
who had been the Inquisition's general secretary in 1789, became a Bonapartist and published a critical history in 1817
from his French exile, based on his privileged access to its archives.[citation
Inquisition was definitively abolished on July 15, 1834, by a Royal Decree
signed by regent Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand VII's liberal widow, during the
minority of Isabella II and with the approval of the
President of the Cabinet Francisco Martínez
de la Rosa. (It is possible that something similar to the Inquisition
acted during the 1833–1839 First Carlist War, in
the zones dominated by the Carlists, since one of
the government measures praised by Conde
de Molina Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbon was the
re-implementation of the Inquisition to protect the Church). During the Carlist Wars it was the conservatives who fought the progressists who wanted to reduce the Church's power,
amongst other reforms to liberalise the economy.[citation
It is unknown
exactly how much wealth was confiscated from converted Jews and others tried
by the Inquisition. Wealth confiscated in one year of persecution in the
small town of Guadaloupe paid the costs of building
a royal residence.
There are numerous records of the opinion of ordinary Spaniards of the time
Inquisition was devised simply to rob people. "They were burnt only for the money
they had,’ a resident of Cuenca averred. "They burn only the
well-off," said another. In 1504 an accused stated, "only the rich
were burnt." …In
1484…Catalina de Zamora was accused of asserting that "this Inquisition that the
fathers are carrying out is as much for taking property from the conversos as for defending the faith. "It is the
goods that are the heretics." This saying passed into common usage in Spain. In 1524 a treasurer
informed Charles V that his predessor had received
ten million ducats from the conversos, but the
figure is unverified. In 1592 an inquisitor admitted that most of the fifty
women he arrested were rich. In 1676, the Suprema
claimed it had confiscated over 700,000 ducats for the royal treasury (which
was paid money only after the Inquisition's own budget, amounting in one
known case to only 5%). The property on Mallorca alone in 1678 was worth
‘well over 2,500,000 ducats."
García Cárcel estimates that the
total number processed by the Inquisition throughout its history was
applying the percentages of executions that appeared in the trials of
1560–1700 — about 2% — the approximate total would be about 3,000 put to
death. Nevertheless, very probably this total should be raised keeping in
mind the data provided by Dedieu and García Cárcel for the tribunals
of Toledo and Valencia, respectively. It is likely that the total would be
between 3,000 and 5,000 executed.
historians have begun to study the documentary records of the Inquisition.
The archives of the Suprema,
today held by the National Historical Archive of Spain (Archivo Histórico Nacional), conserves the annual relations of all
processes between 1540 and 1700. This material provides information on about
44,674 judgements, the latter studied by Gustav Henningsen
and Jaime Contreras. These 44,674 cases include 826 executions in persona
and 778 in effigie. This material, however,
is far from being complete — for example, the tribunal of Cuenca is entirely
omitted, because no relaciones de causas from this tribunal have been found, and
significant gaps concern some other tribunals (e.g. Valladolid). Many more
cases not reported to the Suprema are known from
the other sources (e.g. no relaciones de causas from Cuenca have been found, but its original
records have been preserved), but were not included in Contreras-Hennigsen's statistics for the methodological reasons.
William Monter estimates 1000 executions between 1530–1630 and 250 between 1630–1730.
of the Suprema only provide information surrounding
the processes prior to 1560. To study the processes themselves, it is
necessary to examine the archives of the local tribunals; however, the majority have been lost to the devastation of war, the
ravages of time or other events. Jean-Pierre Dedieu
has studied those of Toledo, where 12,000 were judged for offences related to
Ricardo García Cárcel has
analyzed those of the tribunal of Valencia.
These authors' investigations find that the Inquisition was most active in
the period between 1480 and 1530, and that during this period the percentage
condemned to death was much more significant than in the years studied by Henningsen and Contreras. Henry Kamen
gives the number of about 2,000 executions in persona in the whole
Spain up to 1530.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Inquisition
The Jewish Marranos (Forced converts to Catholicism during the
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MarranoCached - Similar
Marranos: Secret Seder in
Spain during the times of inquisition, painting by Moshe Maimon.
Jews living in the Iberian peninsula who were forced ...
Conversos, and New Christians
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Marranos.htmlCached - Similar
The terms “Marrano”
and “converso” were applied in Spain and Portugal
to the descendants of baptized Jews suspected of secret adherence to Judaism.
FRIENDS OF MARRANOS
the Marranos frequently
carried in secret their Jewish names and transmitted. them to ... The
symbolic of the Marrano
names repeat exactly the symbolic of the ...
www.haruth.com/JewsMarranos.htmlCached - Similar
15 Apr 2010 – Elizabethan
Unmasked · Family converts to orthodox Judaism · Finding our lost brothers
and sisters: The Crypto Jews of Brazil ...
(people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/366145/MarranoCached - Similar
Marrano (people), in Spanish
history, a Jew who converted to the Christian faith to escape persecution but
who continued to practice Judaism secretly. It was a ...
The story of New Christians and secret Jews such as marranos ...
www.jackwhite.net/iberia/index.htmlCached - Similar
The Worldwide Story
of Hidden and Forcibly Converted Jews including Conversos,
Marranos, Anussim, Jadid al-Islam, Crypto
Jews, Neofity, Xuetas, Chuetas ...
Yovel, Y.: The Other Within: The Marranos:
Split Identity and ...
press.princeton.edu/titles/8824.htmlCached - Similar
6 Nov 2011 – Description
of the book The Other Within: The Marranos: Split Identity
and Emerging Modernity by Yovel, Y., published by
Princeton University ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
- Quick View
This booklet on the Marranos, the Jews of
Spain, Portugal and Latin. America baptized ... we would have to
address the history and sufferings of the Marranos. ...
Samuel Nunez - Ribeiro - The Life of A Marrano -
29 Jul 2011 – They
were called 'Marranos'
(pigs) by the Christians, who despised them and hated them. The heads of the
Church began to watch them, and ...
The Last Marranos
www.jewishfilm.org/Catalogue/films/lastmarranos.htmCached - Similar
later, The Last Marranos
takes a fascinating look at the village of Belmonte, Portugal. Its rites and
prayers are an amalgam of Christianity and ...